Welcome to the Anatomy Physiology 

Website 

To understand the abnormal you have to know the normal.
Understand for life, and stop memorizing for an exam only.

D.  Hammoudi. MD

Lectures   


Basic Anatomy  
Cell and cell membrane-
Skin -Bones- Nervous System-Muscles

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Nervous System and senses

***Text***

Nervous system introduction, histology
Generality 
Neurophysiology 
Synapse
Brain Anatomy and Function
Neuroendocrine 
Spinal cord and reflexes
Peripheral nervous system
ANS
male brain

PPT's
Introduction 
NS lecture presentation 
NS presentation 2 
Neurophysiology 
Neurophyspresentation 2 
Neurotransmitters
Brain Anatomy
Brain Anatomy 2
Sinal cord and reflexes
ANS Lecture
A.N.S
PNS
Limbic system

------------------
UPDATED LECTURE 2020

*INTRODUCTION TO NERVOUS SYSTEM

Spinal cord


*HISTOLOGY NERVOUS SYSTEM
-Neurons
-Glial cells
Spinal cord histology

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*Brain anatomy part 1: cerebrum
*Brain anatomy part 2 the cortex
*Brain anatomy part 3 
-Meninges
-Ventricles and CSF
-Sleep
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***Lecture video
*Introduction nervous system.
*Histology nervous system part 1 (generality)
*Histology nervous system part 2 (neurons)
*Histology nervous system part 3 (glial cells)
*Spinal cord and nerve histology part 1
*Spinal cord and nerve histology part 2
*Cranial nerves
*Meninges
*Cerebellum resumed
--------------------Brain stucture VIDEO
*Brain structure part 1 video
*Brain structure part 2 cortex
*brain structure part 3 diencephalon
*brain structure part 4 limbic system
-Broca aphasia video 1
-Broca's aphasia 2
-Wernicke aphasia video
-Aphasia
-Amygdala
__________
*Nervous system physiology part 1
*Nervous system physiology part 2

*Reflexes

*Autonomic nervous system
*cranial nerves

____________
*Neurotransmitters(if not working for some use the second link)
+Neurotransmitters


Lab models
and
Exercise
Skin -bones- Nervous System-Muscles

https://sites.google.com/view/ap1labmaterials/home

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Muscles

***Muscles Generality and histology

***Head, torso,abdomen

***Superior appendages

***Inferior appendages

***Musles Models

***Muscles Models 2
***Muscle Models 3

***Muscles Table 1     
***Muscle tables 2

***Muscle innervation


*Lab PPt update*

***Muscle generality and introduction

***Muscle of the head
****Muscles of the  neck

***Muscles of the Torso, abdomen

***rotatory cuff

***Muscles of the superior appendages

***Muscle of the inferior appendages
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***Lab video***

-Chapter 23Introduction to Skeletal Muscles
***Skeletal Muscle Histology and Muscle Fiber Model

***chapter 24Muscles of the Head, Neck and Torso
****Muscles of the head and Face
***Neck Muscles,
**Eye Muscles,
***Muscles of Torso

-chapter 25 Muscles that Move the Superior Appendages

****the arm model muscles.
***wrist movements, elbow
***movements, rotator cuff
****humerus movements
****scapula movements.

-Chapter 26 Muscles that Move the Inferior Appendages

***leg model muscles

Pr Imoltz video
• Scapula Movements 
*• Humerus movements
*• Rotator Cuff:
*• Elbow Movements
*• Wrist movements
*• Scapula Movements
*• Humerus movements:
*• Rotator Cuff:
*• Elbow Movements:
*• Wrist movements:
*• Hip Flexors:
*• Lower Limb Muscles



LAB VIDEO Dr H.

***Muscle generality and introduction

***Muscle of the head
***Muscles of the neck

***Muscles of the Torso, abdomen

***Rotatory Cuff

***Muscles of the superior appendages

***Muscle of the inferior appendages


***The Rotatory Cuff

Very good site for muscles of the face and facts: FACE THE FACT

Lab

Hematology, cardiovascular, pulmonary, GI,urinary, reproductive, endocrinology.

Lab Pictures 
https://sites.google.com/view/ap-ii-lab-materials/home
****
Scantron

Lectures

Hematology, cardiovascular, pneumology, GI, urinary, reproductive, endocrinology.

Textbook

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Neuroendocrine
Lecture
Neuroendocrine (resumed)
Neurorendocrine function video







video link endocrine
video 1 animation of the events that occur when a hormone binds to a cell membrane receptor.


video2  an animation showing the role of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

video3  animation describing the location and function of the adrenal glands.
video4  an animation describing the function of the hormone melatonin.
video 5 animation describing the location and function of the pancreas.

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THYROID-Parthyroid
         Lecture
         video youtube
         Thyroid hormone formation video
         Thyroid hormone formation 2 video

Pancreas endocrine
            Lecture
            Flash card metabolic state

Adrenal Glands- Thymus
              Lecture

              Adrenal glands details
              Cortisol video

 



Practical Questions 

AP 2 Practical question click here


All practical question are password protected now. No password will be given to any other student but mine, due to abuse and copyright

How to study for AP 1 , AP 2

click here.

Read Read Read
create your flash cards

ppt, books, notes

Understand

do not memorize
Know for life not just an exam
be able to teach it

Do Question

Plenty of them
individually or in group

Tutoring
 "FAILURE IS NOT AN OPTION"
Never Give Up
Yes it is hard, yes you will not sleep, yes it is a lot of material for a short period of time, but A is possible.

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PG REGISTER CLICK HERE 
Laurel call this number to register:1-443 518 4500
                                                                 1-866 228 6110
Private tutoring AP1, 2, MICROBIOLOGY, NURSING USMLE STEP 1 AND 2 :sinoemedical@comcast.net



If you need tutoring, for AP 1 and 2 or Both please contact me or fillout the below form.
Group tutoring is possible.
Thank you.

PG REGISTER CLICK HERE
Laurel call this number to register:1-443 518 4500
1-866 228 6110
Private tutoring : sinoemedical@comcast.net
Anatomy Physiology, Nursing, microbiology, USMLE STEP 1 AND 2

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Any question please email me @ sinoemedical@comcast.net or fill out this form 
Allow 24 h to reply Thanks.

Wet Lab
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Anatomy Gifts Registry
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The fun and learning

The general facts
“Once you start studying medicine, you never get through with it.”
Charles H. Mayo, MD





Below are some of the amazing facts.

Anatomy first found wide acceptance as a science in ancient Greece.

(a) Hippocrates is regarded as the father of medicine because of the sound principles of medical practice he established.

(b) The Greek philosophy of body humors dominated medical thought for over 2,000 years.

(c) Aristotle pursued a limited type of scientific method in obtaining data; his writings contain some basic anatomy.

+ Alexandria was a center of scientific learning from 300 to 30 B.C.

(a) Human dissections and vivisections were performed in Alexandria.

(b) Erasistratus is referred to as the father of physiology because of his interpretations of various body functions.

+Theoretical data was deemphasized during the Roman era.

(a) Celsus’s eight-volume work was a compilation of medical data from the  Alexandrian school.

(b) Galen was an influential medical writer who made some important advances in anatomy; at the same time he introduced serious errors into the literature that went unchallenged for centuries.

(c) Science was suppressed for nearly  1,000 years during the Middle Ages, and dissections of human cadavers were prohibited.

(d) Anatomical writings were taken from Alexandria by Arab armies, and thus saved from destruction during the Dark Ages in Europe.

+ During the Renaissance, many great European universities were established.

(a) Andreas Vesalius and Leonardo da Vinci were renowned Renaissance men who produced monumental studies of the human form.

(b) De Humani Corporis Fabrica, written by Vesalius, had a tremendous impact on the advancement of human anatomy. Vesalius is regarded as the father of human anatomy.

+ Two major scientific contributions of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were the explanation of blood flow and the development of the microscope.

(a) In 1628, William Harvey correctly described the circulation of blood.

(b) Shortly after the microscope had been perfected by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, many investigators added new discoveries to the rapidly changing specialty of microscopic anatomy.

+The cell theory was formulated during the nineteenth century by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, and cellular biology became established as a science separate from anatomy.

+ A trend toward simplification and standardization of anatomical nomenclature began in the twentieth century. In addition, many specialties within anatomy developed, including cytology, histology, embryology, electron microscopy, and radiology.

The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Schleiden and Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. All cells come from preexisting cells. Vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.

The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, a small room. The name was chosen by Robert Hooke when he compared the cork cells he saw to the small rooms monks lived in.

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology) ]



How Many Licks Does It Really Take?

Engineering students at Purdue University and the University of Michigan used licking machines to get to the bottom of the eternal question: "How many licks does it take to get to the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop?" Purdue's machine averaged 364 licks while Michigan averaged 411. However, these robot tongues may have been inefficient. Hungry humans took 252 licks at most in other Tootsie tests [source: Wired].

The history of anatomy as a science extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists. It has been marked, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced drastically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers to technologically complex techniques developed in the last century.

Ancient anatomy
begins at least as early as 1600 BC, the date of publication of an Egyptian anatomical papyrus that has survied to this day; this treatise identifies a number of organs and shows a basic knowledge of blood vessels.

The earliest medical scientist of whose works any great part survives today is Hippocrates, a Greek physician active in the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC (460-377 BC). His work demonstrates a basic understanding of musculoskeletal structure, and the beginnings of understanding of certain organs, such as the kidneys. Much of his work, however, and much of that of his students and followers later, relies on speculation rather than empirical observation of the body.

In the 4th century BC, Aristotle and several contemporaries produced a more empirically founded system, based on dissection of animals; works produced around this time are the first to identify the difference between arteries and veins, and the relations between organs are described more accurately than in previous works.

The first use of human cadavers for anatomical research occurred later in the 4th century BC, when Herophilos and Erasistratus performed dissections of cadavers in Alexandria under the auspices of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Herophilos in particular developed a body of anatomical knowledge much more informed by the actual structure of the human body than previous works had been.

Galen
The final major anatomist of ancient times was Galen, active in the 2nd century AD. He compiled much of the knowledge obtained by previous writers, and furthered the inquiry into the function of organs by performing vivisection on animals. His collection of drawings, based mostly on dog anatomy, would hold as a "Gray's Anatomy of the ancient world" for 1500 years. The original text is long gone, and his work was only known to the Rennaissance doctors through the careful custody of Arabic medicine, since the Church destroyed it as heresy. Hampered by the same religious restrictions as anatomists for centuries after him, Galen assumed that anatomical structures in dogs were the same as for humans.

Modern anatomy
Anatomical research in the past hundred years has taken advantage of technological developments and growing understanding of sciences such as evolutionary and molecular biology to create a thorough understanding of the body's organs and structures. While disciplines such as endocrinology have explained the purpose of glands that previous anatomists could not explain, medical devices such as MRI machines and CAT scanners have enabled researchers to study the organs of living people. Progress today in anatomy is centered in the field of molecular biology, as the macroscopic aspects of the field have now been catalogued and addressed.

History of anatomy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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