Danil Hammoudi.MD sinoe medical association

ANATOMYPHYSIOLOGY

 

 

To understand the abnormal you have to know the normal.

"FAILURE IS NOT AN OPTION"

THERE IS MORE STUFF TO BE KNOWN THAN WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW

If you have any question you get my E-mail

1. Human anatomy is the science concern with the structure of the human body.

2. The terms of anatomy are descriptive and are generally of Greek or Latin derivation.

3. The history of human anatomy parallels that of medicine and has also been greatly influenced by various religions.

 

" I DID'T FAIL THE TEST. I JUST FOUND 100 WAYS TO DO IT WRONG." -BENJAMIN FRANKLIN-Thanks Laurie.


KEY WORDS


  1. The heart [not mine but very useful and resumed ]
  2. From bailey and love 2nd edition:

  1. Lecture Notes

  1. Pulmonary disease


  1. lecture notes 3


ADRENAL GLANDS


  1. Lecture Notes
  2. Physiology
  3. Pathology and condition


  1. GI Anatomy Histology notes
  2. GI Physiology notes
  3. GI Pictures

 


Genetics and hereditary

Embryology resumed


Terminology Generality


http://academic.pgcc.edu/AandP/

http://academic.pgcc.edu/~mhubley/a&p/a&p.htm

http://academic.pgcc.edu/~aimholtz/

http://academic.pgcc.edu/AandP/Bio206/Images/Exercise1/ex1main.html

http://academic.pgcc.edu/AandP/Bio206/Images/Exercise2/ex2main.html

http://www.learntheheart.com/topicreviews.html

http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/pharm/hyper_heart1.html

Internal Heart Tutorial and Self-Test to review basic anatomy of heart, chambers, valves etc...
 
Posterior Heart Tutorial and Self-Test to review basic anatomy of heart and vessels...
 
Quizzer 1 on basic EKG features including deflections and segments etc...
 
EKG Arrhythmia Tutorial to identify arrhythmias including VTAC, PVC, hyperkalemia etc...
 
Quizzer 2 on EKG arrhythmias such as heart blocks, PAC, digitalis effect etc...
 
CyberHeart Tutorial to experiment with cardiac function... (but try to avoid causing cardiac arrest!)
 
Sheep Heart Interactive tutorial with views of dissected sheep heart...

Blood typing exercise

http://faculty.washington.edu/kepeter/119/images/blood_typing_photos.htm

http://faculty.matcmadison.edu/mljensen/BloodBank/lectures/bb_l

ecture_table_of_contents.htm

http://www.yeastrc.org/pdr/viewGONode.do?acc=GO:0002890

Other Web Resources On The Heart...

 
American Heart Association Lots of information and links on heart disease...
 
Ascultation Assistant Very good site with recorded heart sounds & murmurs...
 
EKG Library Well-organized archives of many EKG tracings...
 
Heart News Hot-off-the-presses news on the heart and heart disease...
 
NOVA Online Companion WebSite for the "Cut to the heart" NOVA television program...
 
The Heart: An Online Exploration - Informative resource on the cardiovascular system...
 
Virtual Heart Interactive site with basic heart tutorials (shockwave)...

 

LAB MANUAL

ccbc lab manual

 

1/ Microscopic Analysis of Blood

2/ Selected Blood Test

3/ Blood Terminology

 


 

1/Gross and Microscopic Anatomy Of The Human Heart

2./Dissecrtion of sheep Heart

2bis/ heart dissection

3/ECG

4/Quantitative Analysis of Cardiovascular Function

5/REVIEW

6/vasculature

7/circle of willis


Cat Dissection


 

1/Gross and microscopic Anatomy of the Respiratory System

2/Respiratory Physiology

3/ Review

4/ Review KEY POINTS


1/Gross  Anatomy of the GI system

2/ Microscopic Anatomy of the GI system

3/Enzyme Analysis [see lab book]

4/REVIEW

5/GI MODELS

6/GI models 2


1/Gross and microscopic Anatomy of the urinary system

2/urinalysis

3/Acid Base Balance

4/ REVIEW1

5/ REVIEW 2

6/ acid base cases

7/urinary models


 

 



Our very good friend Ian TRYING TO BEAT THE GENETICS TO BECOME A  LEPRECON.


 

Hemostasis - Miriam powell

ANEMIA -Alex

Cardiomyopathy-Becki

Cardiomyopathy consequences-Roseanne Baird

Complete Blood Count-Cartesian Thinking at Its Best)-Laurie Larsson

CongestiveCardiomyopathy-Lindsay Martin

Endometriosis [MY BEST WRITER]Heather Diane Smith

Erythropoietin-Laura Hutton

LAB 2 REVIEW  Melany Joe  Chris

Jeopardy kidney review cath, sarah,erin

JEOPARDY KIUDNEY REVIEW PART 2  CATH , ERIN, SARAH


 

 

Theoretical Function of Hassall뭩 Corpuscles in the ThymusErin M. Ballweber

BEST WEBSITE FOR A MIDDLESCHOOL STUDENT LOVING MEDICINE

PATRICK S.

 


Aging and Life Expectancy

Aging is a normal, inevitable process that ends with death. While the mean life expectancy of a newborn is estimated to have been amere 10 years 50 000 years ago and ca. 25 years in ancient Rome (!A1), it is nowadays between 38 (in Sierra Leone) and 80 years (Japan).

It is mainly due to decreased infant mortality and the effective treatment of infections (especially in children) that life expectancy in the industrial nations has increased markedly in the past 100 years (e.g., in the USA from 42 to 72 years in men and to 79 in women). As a result, diseases of the elderly are the most common causes of death: ca. 50% are diseases of the cardiovascular system; 25% are tumors.

These are largely diseases that prevent a maximal life-span being reached, which, now as then, is about 100 years (!A1). Thus, of those aged 98 years, only 10% will still be alive three years later and after 10 years only 0.005%(!A2). The world record set by the French woman Jeanne Calment (122 years) is thus an extremely rare exception.

The causes of aging are unclear. Even individual cultured cells will 밶ge, i.e., after a certain number of cycles they stop dividing (fetal pulmonary fibroblasts after ca. 60 divisions; !B). Only a few cells are 밿mmortal (unlimited proliferation, e.g., germinal, tumor, and hemopoietic stem cells). Life-span and age are in part genetically determined. Thus, mutation of the gene age-1 of the nematode can double its life-span, and the human gene that codesfor DNA-helicase can cause premature aging (progeria of the adult =Werner뭩 syndrome).

Recently a gene (MORF4) was discovered whose exclusion by mutation makes cultured cells immortal: if the normal MORF4 gene is passed to (immortal) cancer cells, it stops their proliferation. In 뱋ld cells, MORF4 is up-regulated; in proliferating cells it is down-regulated.

The age-1 mutation produces, among other effects, an increased resistance against free radicals. That oxidative damage is important for aging, is also suggested by the fact that membrane lipids, DNA, and proteins damaged by O2 radicals accumulate with age, while atthe same time the activity of enzymes that

guard against oxidation is reduced. On the other hand, defects of the helicase gene resultin the accumulation of harmful somatic DNAmutations and in a decreasing telomer length,which limits the ability of the cell to divide.

Many inherited diseases and (often polygenetically) inherited risk factors, have a secondary effect on life-span, e.g. in favoring the development of certain tumors. Studies of monozygotic (uniovular) twins have, however,shown that at least two thirds of variability of life-span is not genetically determined.

As one gets older, a reduction of bodily functions (!C) occurs as, for example, of maximumbreathing capacity, cardiac output (CO),maximal O2 uptake, and glomerular filtrationrate (GFR). Muscle and bone mass decrease,while the amount of fat increases, largely dueto endocrine factors (!D). For these reasons it is their frailty that is the limiting factor for most (otherwise healthy) very old persons.

This weakness of old age is characterized by diminished muscle power, slowed reflexes, impaired mobility and balance, and reduced stamina. The result is falls, fractures, reduced daily physical activity, and loss of independence.

Muscle weakness is not only caused byphysiological aging processes (!D) and wear and tear (e.g., damage to joints), but also by lack of movement, leading to a vicious circle.

Purely age-related problems with memory (especially problems of orientation in an unaccustomed environment) seem to be caused by a disturbed long-term potentiation in the cortex and hippocampus (reduced density of glutamate receptors, type NMDA, in the dentate gyrus). It is now doubted whether a significant loss of neurons, such as occurs in Alzheimer뭩 disease or atherosclerosis-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow, is part of the normal process of aging.


Obesity Linked to Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Medscape Medical News

Girls With ADHD at High Risk for Psychiatric Complications in Young Adulthood
Medscape Medical News

Ultraminilaparotomy May Be Effective for Uterine Fibroids
In a cohort study, ultraminilaparotomy and laparoscopically assisted ultraminilaparotomy were used successfully in place of laparotomy in the management of uterine fibroids.
Clinical Review, January 2010

Chocolate Linked to Lower Stroke and Stroke Mortality Risk
Medscape Medical News

Low Vitamin D in Utero May Heighten Multiple Sclerosis Risk
Medscape Medical News

click here

All practical question are password protected now, due to abuse and also teacher cannot create their own question, my students will be provided with a password a the beginning of each semester.

 


  • About 62,000.miles of blood vessels are there in the average human body
  • The average human liver is more than five times the weight of the human heart. The liver stretches across almost the width of the body, occupying a space about the size of a football. It weighs more than 3 pounds. 
  • If 80 percent of your liver were to be removed, the remaining part would continue to function. Within a few months, the liver would have reconstituted itself to its original size. 

Do identical twins have identical fingerprints?
A: No. No two sets of prints are alike, including those of identical twins.


 

One easy way to remember which abdominopelvic organs are retroperitoneal is to use a mnemonic such as SAD PUCKER:

S = Suprarenal (adrenal) glands
A = Aorta/Inferior Vena Cava
D = Duodenum (second and third segments)

P = Pancreas
U = Ureters
C = Colon (ascending and descending only)
K = Kidneys
E = Esophagus
R = Rectum
Ursula Uses Kids to Deliver All Lemon Pies except Sue뭩 Tasty Crust
Ureters
Urinary bladder
Kidneys
Duodenum
Adrenal glands
Large intestine
Pancreas
except (not retroperitoneal) Sigmoid and Transverse Colon 


Characteristics of IgG and IgM antibodies

  1. Clinical significance

  • Clinical of red cell antibodies in blood bank depend on whether they can cause in vivo hemolysis, which in turn will cause transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn.
  • IgG  will frequently cause in vivo hemolysis due to antibody coating the red blood cells.
  • IgM, with a few important exceptions, usually does NOT cause in vivo hemolysis.  The most important of these exceptions are ABO antibodies.
  1. Size of the antibodies

  • IgG is relatively small since it is comprised of only one immunoglobulin subunit. (monomer)
  • IgM is relatively large since it is comprised of 5 immunoglobulin subunits. (pentamer)
  1. Serum concentration

  • IgG is found in the largest concentration of all immunoglobulins in the plasma.
  • IgM is found in relatively small amounts
  • IgG > IgA > IgM
  1. Complement activation

  • IgG = will do it if conditions are optimal
  • IgM = very good complement activator
  1. Placental transfer

  • IgG is small enough to easily cross placenta and is the only immunoglobulin capable of doing so.
  • IgM and the other classes do not cross placenta
  1. Optimum temperature of reactivity

  • a. IgG = 37oC
  • b. IgM = 4 oC (may react at any temperature below 30C)
  1. Number of antigen-binding sites
  • IgG has 2 binding sites
  • IgM has 10 binding sites

Terms used to describe antibodies

Immunoglobulin:
antibody formed as a result of immune stimulus (exposure to foreign antigen)
 
Naturally occurring
antibody formed without prior exposure to foreign antigen
 
Autoantibody:
antibody formed to one's own antigens (abnormal condition)
 
Alloantibody (unexpected, irregular, atypical):
antibody formed to foreign antigens, but within the same species
 
Agglutinin:
antibody capable of causing agglutination when reacting with corresponding antigen
 
Isoagglutinin:
name commonly given to blood group antibodies anti-A and anti-B
 
Saline agglutinin:
antibody capable of causing direct agglutination of antigens suspended in a saline medium without requiring any enhancement techniques
 
Hemolysin:
antibody capable of causing hemolysis when reacting with corresponding antigen
 
Cold antibody (cold agglutinin):
antibody whose optimal temperature of reactivity is less than 30oC
 
Warm antibody:
antibody whose optimal temperature of reactivity is greater than 35oC
[http://faculty.matcmadison.edu/mljensen/BloodBank/lectures/
blood_bank_antigens_and_antibodi.htm]

Recommended Percent Body Fat Table
Ages
20-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60+
Male Minimum
7
12
14
16
17
Maximum
17
21
23
24
25
Female Minimum
16
17
19
22
22
Maximum
24
25
28
31
33

In the United States, armadillos are a major reservoir of leprosy infection. They are one of the few animals known to become infected and are used in research efforts to study the disease. They have an unusually low body temperature of around 34캜, which is hospitable to M leprae growth. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.To read more click here


King George II of Great Britain died while straining on the commode (shown) and was the first well-documented case of an aortic dissection, but a number of other well-known figures have been diagnosed as well, including Lucille Ball, John Ritter, Princess Diana, and Dr. Michael DeBakey. Dr. DeBakey pioneered the first successful surgical repair of aortic dissections, which fortunately allowed him to be successfully operated on and saved. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

 

  

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